At grandly-organised weddings, burials, child naming or dedications, and birthdays, people—regardless of financial status—come forward while dancing to rain money on those on the dance floor. Under the Koppen Climate Classification system, the type of climate that encompasses southern Nigeria is that of the “Af” classification. The water that has fallen to the surface of the earth flows over time into streams into rivers and seas. A lot of rain (rainy season) falls in the months: April, May, June, July and October. Each inhabits a territory that it considers to be its own by right of first occupancy and inheritance. In Nigeria, the climate is tropical, semi-arid in the far north, ... and it even exceeds 3,000 mm (120 in) in the far south-east (the map below shows the average rainfall, in millimeters on the left and in inches on the right). All the processes that take place in it are simple, and at the same time wondrous. The cattle-herding rural Fulani, who generally do not intermarry, speak the Fulani language, Fula, rather than Hausa. In the southwest large areas of forest have been replaced by cacao and rubber plantations. Hausa musicians performing at the court of the amir of Zaria, northern Nigeria. People measure them by the thickness of the water layer in millimeters. It is the main source of livelihood for most Nigerians. Relief rainfall occurs when air has been blown over the sea and is then forced up over an area of high land. Meteorologists allocate a few dozen. In the middle belt, where the greatest concentration of ethnic groups (more than 180) occurs, the Tiv and the Nupe are the largest groups. This type of forests is found in the Niger River Delta, which is characterized by the precipitation level of 1500 – 2000 mm/8-9 month of rainfall. The largest political unit is the village, which is ruled by a council of elders (chosen by merit, not heredity) rather than by a chief. Rainfall-Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) models developed using standard statistical bivari applied to estimate 5-, 10-,15-,20 0.083 to 24hrs. In general, the length of the rainy season decreases from south to north. The main vegetation patterns run in broad east-west belts, parallel to the Equator. As already mentioned, there are a number of variations when it comes to types of precipitation. What you need to know. The moisture-laden wind blows in from the sea because the Relief rainfall frequently occurs near mountains beside the sea. A hail in its internal structure is very similar to a bulb: it consists of several layers of ice. The forest zone is located in the southern part of Nigeria. The average amount of annual precipitation is: 999.9 mm (39.37 in) In the northeastern city of Maiduguri, for example, the mean monthly maximum temperature may exceed 100 °F (38 °C) during the hot months of April and May, while in the same season frosts may occur at night. Sometimes humidity ist unpleasantly high from July to September. Less numerous are the Ibibio, who live near the Igbo and share many of their cultural traits, and the Edo, who created the important precolonial kingdom of Benin. Thus, atmospheric precipitation is born, the species of which depend on specific meteorological conditions in a certain locality. The amount of precipitation in a particular area can be measured. On the coast the mean monthly maximum temperatures are steady throughout the year, remaining about 90 °F (32 °C) at Lagos and about 91 °F (33 °C) at Port Harcourt; the mean monthly minimum temperatures are approximately 72 °F (22 °C) for Lagos and 68 °F (20 °C) for Port Harcourt. As reported by the FAO, agriculture remains the foundation of the Nigerian economy, despite the presence of oil in the country. Data was gathered through a well designed and articulated oral and written questionnaires, direct and first-hand observation of the environment, and comprehensive interview sessions were carried out with randomly selected Landlords . With a yearly average of 33 °C the climate in Nigeria ist warm, but has only a few really tropical and sticky months. The scheme of their formation is based on the continuous cycle of water in nature. This is a kind of liquid precipitation in the form of water droplets, dropping to the ground under the influence of gravity. Statistical Analysis of Rainfall Trend in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria 117 MATERIALS AND METHODS The type of data required for this research is rainfall data measured in millimeters (mm) collated for twelve (12) months of the year. By Akinsanola A. Types of Vegetation Zones in Nigeria. After rising to a certain height, it cools, and the moisture in it gradually turns into drops of water or into ice crystals. It is warm to hot all year round and invites to bathe at average water temperatures of 27 degrees. Rainfall in Nigeria is characterized by both latitudinal and longitudinal variations. When they fall to the ground, the balls are broken, and the water in them flows out, leading to the formation of dangerous ice. It should be noted that all these features and signs are the result of very complex processes in the earth's atmosphere. No single factor can be singled out as the only factor responsible for each flood type, though, a factor (e.g. In the more densely populated parts of the southeast, the original forest vegetation has been replaced by open palm bush. Inland, it decreases to around 130 cm (50 inch) over most of central Nigeria and only 50 cm (20 inch) in the extreme north. This climate is influenced by the monsoons originating from the South Atlantic ocean, which is brought into the country by the (maritime tropical) MT airmass, a warm moist sea to land seasonal wind. It is worth noting that the hail is a serious disaster for agriculture, because it can easily destroy all the plants on the plantation. They consider the city of Ile-Ife their ancestral home and the deity Oduduwa their progenitor. It is hot and wet most of the year in the southeast but dry in the southwest and farther inland. Gallery forests (narrow forest zones along rivers) are also characteristic of the open savanna in the north. Economically valuable, the oil palm grows wild and is usually preserved when forest is cleared for cultivation. The third major ethnic group, the Igbo of southeastern Nigeria, lives in small decentralized and democratic settlements. By After School Africa Last updated Jul 29, 2013. In Gaya , 825 mm (32.5 in) of rain fall per year, of which 70 mm (2.8 in) fall already in May, and with maximum of and 250 mm (10 in) in August. The savanna becomes more open in the far north and is characterized by scattered stunted trees and short grasses. On average, January is the driest month. This causes the air to cool and the moisture in the air condenses and rain falls. Areas are occupied by forests and receive a little less moisture - depending on the year, its number varies from 1600 to 3000 mm. There have been cases when hails dropped to the ground weighing up to 1-2 kilograms! the empirical study of seasonal rainfall effect in Calabar, Nigeria. Nigeria’s growing population is a result of a high fertility rate and increasing life expectancy. The solution to healthcare problems in Nigeria. In the central regions of the country it’s even drier - the … Non-Recording Type Rain Gauge. Types of Rain Gauges 1. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The most humid regions are the delta of the Niger and the south-east of the country, there is more than 4000 mm of precipitation in a year. But what causes them and why are they so different? This weather is very different and it has a well defined rainy season and a well dry season structured out, the temperature stays above 18 Celsius in the entire year, a city where you can find this type of climatic change is Abuja, the dry season over there starts in December. The tropical monsoon climate, designated by the Köppen climate classification as "Am", is found in the southern part of the country. The hot Harmattan wind from the Sahara sweeps across the northeastern areas which. A savanna climate, with marked wet and dry seasons, prevails in the north and west, while a steppe climate with little precipitation is found in the far north. Tropical grassland occupies the area north of the forest belt and is studded with baobab, tamarind, and locust bean trees. The records at 25 … Town-dwelling Fulani intermarry freely with the Hausa and other groups, and they continue to control the administration of the Hausa towns. The mean annual rainfall along the coast in the south- east is 4000mm while it is only 500mm in the north- east. In the southern part of the country, the seasons could be classified as March, April, May (MAM), April, May, June (AMJ) and June, July, August, September, (JJAS) while the northern area has one rainfall season – June, July, August, September, (JJAS). Nigeria today has about forty-four (44) weather observation stations which provide measurement of rainfall amount for different locations across the country. Rainfall can also be liquid (rain, drizzle, fog) or hard (snow, hail, frost). The northern-dwelling Hausa, one of the most numerous groups in the country, have become integrated with the smaller Fulani group, whose members conquered Hausaland in the early 19th century; the great majority of both are Muslims. A smaller proportion live in large towns and are culturally much closer to the Edo of neighbouring Benin City (in Edo state) than to the Igbo east of the lower Niger valley. This type of rainfall is common in places with mountains and sea. Rainfall decreases progressively away from the coast; the far north receives no more than 20 inches (500 mm) a year. Rodents such as squirrels, porcupines, and cane rats constitute the largest family of mammals. Non-recording type rain gauge is most common type of rain gauge used by meteorological department. Of course, only crisp notes are encouraged. Typically, they are observed in very small areas. For instance, if you notice gray and cloudy sky, then this could mean rainfall. Interesting! Consistent with the rise of Nigeria as an increasingly dangerous hot spot, 28 of the 30 seafarers kidnapped globally between January and June 2013 were in Nigeria. rainfall) can cause all flood types. Forests. Animals found in both forest and savanna included leopards, golden cats, monkeys, gorillas, and wild pigs. Annual Weather Averages Near Lagos. We first need to understand the concept of acid rain, it’s scientifically proven causes and effects. Now you know how atmospheric precipitation forms and the causes of rainfall. They are identified with the mangrove swamps located around the delta region of River Niger and Cross River. Semidesert conditions exist in the Lake Chad region, where various species of acacia and the doum species of palm are common. Nigeria (/ n a ɪ ˈ dʒ ɪər i ə / ... Rainfall is more limited, to between 500 and 1,500 millimetres (20 and 60 in) per year. Most Yoruba are farmers but live in urban areas away from their rural farmland. The ooni (oni) of Ile-Ife, who is the spiritual leader of the Yoruba, and the alaafin (alafin) of Oyo, who is their traditional political leader, are the most powerful rulers, and their influence is still acknowledged throughout the Yoruba areas. In the far northern areas the nearly total disappearance of plant life has facilitated a gradual southward advance of the Sahara. It starts instantly and happens, typically, in the summer season. Climate data and weather averages in Lagos. Ice rains are a special kind of precipitation, which occur in sub-zero air temperatures. In addition, the moist air heats up and starts rising according to the unshakable laws of physics. Rainforest. Other common birds include quail, vultures, kites, bustards, and gray parrots. Let us consider this process in more details. Do you know the different types of rainfall and their causes? At the northern part of this region is fresh water swamp. Regions in Nigeria with low-lying topography and heavy rainfall, such as the Niger Delta region, are likely to experiences perennial floods owing to its location. The Savannah climate is a popular type of climate in Nigeria. The average level of precipitation a year on the planet is 1000 mm. Example – Symons Rain Gauge. This process is called condensation, and these water particles form the clouds that we admire in the sky. It consists of a cylindrical vessel 127mm in diameter with a base enlarged to 210mm diameter. A marked interruption in the rains occurs during August in the south, resulting in a short dry season often referred to as the “August break.” Precipitation is heavier in the south, especially in the southeast, which receives more than 120 inches (3,000 mm) of rain a year, compared with about 70 inches (1,800 mm) in the southwest. You can even count them and you can determine how many times the drops travelled vertically in the atmosphere. Scholarships. Rainfall data that spanned 50 years from (1966 to This type of solid precipitation is formed at high altitudes (at least 5 kilometers), where the air temperature is always below -15 degrees. Another large and politically dominant group is the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria. On average, June is the wettest month. There have been pandemonium among Nigerians concerning the forecast of acid rainfall between March 20th and 28th 2010. The droplet sizes can be different: from 0.5 to 5 millimeters in diameter. Depending on the intensity, rain can be drizzling, hard or stormy. Mangrove and freshwater swamps occur along the coast and in the Niger delta. In the late 19th century, the colonial leadership in which Nigeria was under then established forest reserves. The northern savanna abounds in guinea fowl. Hence, this study investigates change detection in rainfall pattern over each climatic zone of Nigeria. Acid rain Forecast in Nigeria-Causes and Effects. Dued to the lesser rain the best time for traveling is from November to April. In most rural areas, such aliens may not acquire outright title to land, yet considerable numbers of people have migrated from one ethnic territory to another in search of farmland. There are different types of precipitation and this makes our nature beautiful and unique. North West and North-Eastern parts, with annual rainfall below 600mm. During the snow, visibility is significantly reduced, with a heavy snowfall it can be less than 1 kilometer. Under the influence of heating, the water masses that are contained in the oceans, seas, rivers, are converted into water vapor, mixing with air. In the far south, rainfall is more abundant, so much so that it exceeds 600 mm (23.5 in) per year; therefore, we are out of the Sahel proper. Showers are formed on cold atmospheric fronts, within the limits of unstable air masses. Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability Over Nigeria . All types of precipitation can be divided into three main groups: Rainfall can also be liquid (rain, drizzle, fog) or hard (snow, hail, frost). The humidity generally is high in the north, but it falls during the harmattan (the hot, dry northeast trade wind), which blows for more than three months in the north but rarely for more than two weeks along the coast. There is some major piracy in Nigeria, with attacks directed at all types of vessels. It is hot and wet most of the year in the southeast but dry in the southwest and farther inland. This is a kind of liquid precipitation in the form of water droplets, … What is rainfall? Next, the … It all starts when the sun begins to warm up the earth's surface. Then the natural cycle is repeated again and again. If the intensity of the rain is too high (about 100 mm per hour), then it is called a shower. Ice rain is a drop in the form of small frozen balls, inside of which there is water. In general, mean maximum temperatures are higher in the north, while mean minimum temperatures are lower. A short way inland, the swamps give way to dense tropical rainforests. pattern of rainfall in Nigeria using data on the average rainfall for a period of eleven years was examined. Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Online ISSN: 2249-460x & Print ISSN: 0975-587X . In addition, it is almost impossible to determine the approach of an hailstorm in advance. Temperature and humidity remain relatively constant throughout the year in the south, while the seasons vary considerably in the north; during the northern dry season the daily temperature range becomes great as well. 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But … Nigeria has two main relief regions: the high plateaux ranging between 300 and more than 900m above sea level, and the lowlands, which are generally less than 300 m. The high plateaux include the North Central Plateau, the Eastern and North Eastern Highlands and the Western Uplands. Forests are areas where there is significant tree cover. Nigeria - Nigeria - Climate: Nigeria has a tropical climate with variable rainy and dry seasons, depending on location. Rain, snow or hail - all these concepts are not foreign to us. In the south the rainy season lasts from March to November, whereas in the far north it lasts only from mid-May to September. The most populated country in Africa, Nigeria has a lot to offer adventurous travelers looking for a mix of modern cities and outdoor experiences. It is formed from drops of water, which, after they hit the surface, rises sharply in the vortices of cold air. The processes of vaporization occur throughout the day, constantly, to a greater or lesser extent. Describe each and give conditions when the occur. How does hail happen? Agriculture in Nigeria is a branch of the economy in Nigeria, providing employment for about 35% of the population as of 2020. In general, the length of the rainy season … Their size depends on how long these processes took place in the atmosphere. Thus, large ice balls are formed. The drops of rain falling on a water surface create divergent circles of an ideally round shape on the water. Each Yoruba subgroup is ruled by a paramount chief, or oba, who is usually supported by a council of chiefs. Frontal rainfall. Individuals who are not members of a dominant group but who have lived and worked for several decades in the territory of the group are still considered to be aliens. The rainforest in Nigeria is built of high-mountainous multi-tiered tropical forests, which contain trees of 40-45 meters. The Harmattan wind is hot and dry and carries a reddish dust from the … Both are settled cultivators, but, while Nupe society is hierarchical, that of the Tiv tends to be decentralized. The result showed a continuous increase in the pattern of rainfall for a period of five years within the period under study. Nigeria - Nigeria - Economy: The Nigerian economy is one of the largest in Africa. Averages are for Lagos / Ikeja, which is 8 miles from Lagos. Nigerian agriculture is mainly rain-fed and basically dependent on the vagaries of weather especially rainfall. READ ALSO: These mesmerising sights prove that nature is the art of God. CHANGES IN RAINFALL CHARACTERISTICS IN NORTHERN NIGERIA AONDOVER TARHULE1 and MING-KO WOO* School of Geography and Geology, McMaster Uni6ersity, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1, Canada Recei6ed 4No6ember 1996 Re6ised 27February 1998 Accepted 2March 1998 ABSTRACT This study examines recent changes in several rainfall characteristics in northern Nigeria. These solid precipitates fall at minus-zero temperature and take the form of snow crystals, commonly referred to snowflakes. A & Ogunjobi K. O. A savanna climate, with marked wet and dry seasons, prevails in the north and west, while a steppe climate with little precipitation is found in the far north. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. Also, this type of precipitation is distinguished, such as rain and snow. Among the top Africa nations, Nigeria standout in terms of vegetation. Southwest and farther inland all starts when the sun begins to warm up the earth 's atmosphere volumes... Far northern areas the nearly total disappearance of plant life has facilitated a gradual southward advance of Tiv... Notice gray and cloudy sky, then it is the main vegetation patterns in... Showed a continuous increase in the south the rainy season decreases from south to north 19th century, species! 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