Research one of the following topics and its effect on culture. This style of debate has become a template for handling disagreement to those who consistently watch this type of program. For example, you may enjoy watching a show like Dancing With the Stars while simultaneously tweeting about it on Twitter with your friends. This is merely to say that the personal and social consequences of any medium - that is, of any extension of ourselves - result from the new scale that is introduced into our affairs by each extension of ourselves, or by any new technology.”, ‘…men at once become fascinated by any extension of themselves in any material other than themselves’  (McLuhan, The Gadget Lover: Narcissus as Narcosis 1964). The spiral of silence theory, which states that those who hold a minority opinion silence themselves to prevent social isolation, explains the role of mass media in the formation and maintenance of dominant opinions. Raymond Williams: The Media is always dominated by the rich and powerful in society (Marxist Perspective), Tim Berners Lee (creator of internet) ‘Openness empowers People. We published the (unchanged list of) theories online for 15 years, until 2019. These theories do not necessarily give an all-encompassing picture of media effects but rather work to illuminate a particular aspect of media influence. This theory helps media researchers better understand the field because of the important role the media plays in creating and propagating shared symbols. Tim O'Reilly - inventor of term 'Web 2.0'. The Hypodermic Needle Theory no longer carries the respect it once did since its accuracy was found to … hybridity, communication, interactivity, participation, connectivity, privacy, memory, access, politics etc. Alexandre Astruc’s concept of the ‘caméra-stylo’ (camera pen) promotes directors to wield cameras as writers use pens and to guard against the obstacles of traditional storytelling. Alan Kirby - says postmodernism is dead and buried. Widespread fear that mass-media messages could outweigh other stabilizing cultural influences, such as family and community, led to what is known as the direct effects model of media studies. Celebrities are also used when they effectively say 'you will be admired and valued like me'; Ego gratification - we want to be congratulated and praised, much as we needed to be valued and praised as a child; Creative outlets - Many jobs have little creative content, leaving this need unfulfilled. . Fiske – defines genres as ‘attempts to structure some order into the wide range of texts and meanings that circulate in our culture for the convenience of both producers and audiences.’ He adds, ‘the assignment of a text to a genre influences how the text is read’. One of the theories concerned is media dependency theory. Ethical professional journalism is essential to an informed, free and democratic society. Media Theory Books Showing 1-50 of 588 Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business (Paperback) by. This is to accentuate the parts of their body which will attract a male audience. The four eras are mass society, scientific perspective, limited effects and cultural criticism. Giroux  - Focused on youth representations as 'empty categories' because most media representations are constructed by adults. Allen – ‘Any text requires what is called ‘cultural capital’ on the part of its audience to make sense of it’. This explains somewhat genres repetitive nature. An extension of this is a fourth reading called the aberrant reading, where a completely unintentional meaning is taken away by audiences. David Nye (2007) presented the idea of cyber-dystopia, which envisions a world made worse by technological advancements. This approach theorizes that the audience members control media content through their demands to meet certain personal needs. Emile Durkheim – Labelling theory holds that deviance is not inherent to an act, but instead the result of the externally-imposed label of "deviant". Saris - The term ‘Auteur Theory’ originated from Andrews Sarris’s essay ‘Notes on the Auteur Theory’ in 1962. structuralism, including Lévi-Strauss With this foundation of psychology in place, let’s move on to some applications of these theories in your social media marketing, website planning, and … In this new age, humankind will move from individualism and fragmentation to a collective identity, with a "tribal base." Referred to as the 'ideology of protection' model. Symbolic Interactionism. Small steps into a changed world are better than no steps. E.g. The media logic theory states that common media formats and styles serve as a means of perceiving the world. The third wave of modernization theory rising in the 1990s is the theory of late-, high- or post modernity. The cultivation analysis theory states that heavy exposure to media causes individuals to develop an illusory perception of reality based on the most repetitive and consistent messages of a particular medium. Without audiences, there is no money to make media. Effective use of new media theories and research approaches in the understanding and analysis of contemporary social issues, problems and changes Ability to contribute to debates regarding major dimensions and problems of new media, e.g. (84). He also determined that seven Factors can affect audience interpretation of a text. Indiana Jones, James Bond, Rocky etc. Televised violent acts, whether those reported on news programs or portrayed on television dramas, for example, greatly outnumber violent acts that most people encounter in their daily lives. Genre films share certain fundamental characteristics. Queer Theory explores and challenges the way in which heterosexuality is constructed as normal and homosexuality as deviant. One maxim is quality. theories of cultural industries including those of Hesmondhalgh. The now largely discredited direct effects model of media studies assumes that media audiences passively accept media messages and exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages. Agenda Setting Theory states that mass media organizations determine what the general population considers newsworthy by deciding how much attention a news story receives. Because the media is one of the most important gauges of public opinion, this theory is often used to explain the interaction between media and public opinion. The new specifications from 2017 are very specific about the theorists that students need to have an understanding of. theories of ‘end of audience’, including Shirky. Rick Altman was critical of genre theory. David Bordwell notes, 'any theme may appear in any genre' (Bordwell 1989) ‘One could... argue that no set of necessary and sufficient conditions can mark off genres from other sorts of groupings in ways that all experts or ordinary film-goers would find acceptable' Essentially, genre is hard to classify as pure. The idea of Democratic participant Theory was started by grass-root level media in 1960s. By examining the motives behind the consumption of a particular form of media, researchers can better understand both the reasons for that medium’s popularity and the roles that the medium fills in society. In Section 5, we give the conclusions and point out the contribution of this paper. 4. Meaning can only be discovered by exploring how audiences interpret texts. "In a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been split between active/male and passive/female". In the case of Dancing With the Stars and Twitter, you are using the Internet as a way to be entertained and to connect with your friends. either illustrative or amplifying. Today, the deep rooting of media in the cultural consciousness means that media consumers need engage for only a few moments with a particular television program to understand that it is a news show, a comedy, or a reality show. Thus, an individual who watches a great deal of television may come to view the world as more violent and dangerous than it actually is. Jacques Derrida argued that the binary opposites are never equal and audiences are positioned to favour one over another. Conspiracy theories usually deny consensus or cannot be proven using the historical or scientific method and are not to be confused with research concerning verified conspiracies such as Germany's pretense for invading Poland in World War II. Below the theorists have been categorized by Key Concept – but it’s worth looking at links between concepts, especially for debate and theory related Media papers. According to Altman “Pleasure of genre viewing derives more from reaffirmation than from novelty”. Knowing what to expect in a text makes us enjoy the unexpected. Robert McKee (alternative to Todorov) – still five stages but as follows: Inciting Incident: An event happens that sets the story going, Progressive Complications: For a key character, things just keep getting worse, Crisis: Things get even worse – it looks like it’s all over for the hero, Climax: Things are now so bad, drastic action is called for. Some of the definitions are explained above; the list is presented below. 1987) ‘Television is... the most rewarding medium to use when teaching representations of class because of the contradictions which involve a mass medium attempting to reach all the parts of its class-differentiated audience simultaneously...’. The term 'Folk Devil' is the name given to the object of the moral panic. Gerbner - Studied the effects of television on people’s perception of crime - linked to ‘cultivation theory’ and 'mean world syndrome'. I will highlight the most important maxims here and cover other communication theories as well. Sociologists Gerbner & Gross were concerned about long term exposure to media texts, especially violent TV in US (circa 1976). It was first introduced by Kurt Lewin, the social psychologist and he was the one and the first one, who coined the Gatekeeping term and the noun 'gatekeeper', which basically stands for … The Road Back – vengeful forces controlled by the villain are unleashed. Enigmas are puzzles, questions the audience wants answered. He argues that the media, especially news media, often create and/or enforce moral panics in the public. Schramm 2. (Queer Theory isn’t just about homosexuality. Particular features which are characteristic of a genre are not normally unique to it; it is their relative prominence, combination and functions which are distinctive (Neale, 1980); ‘Genres are instances of repetition and difference‘ (Neale, 1980); ‘Difference is absolutely essential to the economy of genre' (Neale, 1980) - Mere repetition would not attract an audience – a USP is needed. While watching TV, viewers want to be entertained. There are four main eras of media theory. Richard Dyer – in 1973 argued that ‘genres are pleasurable because they offer escapist fantasies into fictional worlds that remove the boredom of reality’. Barbara Fredrickson – objectification; she explored the consequences of being female in a culture that sexually objectifies the female body. ... Media Ecology (Marshall McLuhan) F Ch 25: The Media Equation (Byron Reeves & Clifford Nass) Titanic. Uses and Gratifications Theory. Global Research – Center for Research on Globalization. Many people use the Internet to seek out entertainment, to find information, to communicate with like-minded individuals, or to pursue self-expression. His bold statements about media gained McLuhan a great deal of attention as both his supporters and critics responded to his utopian views about the ways media could transform 20th-century life. He breaks a text down into these five areas: Tom Ryall (1998) says genre has become a cognitive repository of images, sounds, stories, characters, and expectations. This theory states that consumers use the media to satisfy specific needs or desires. One of the ways the media creates and uses cultural symbols to affect an individual’s sense of self is advertising. Communication Theories Social Media Professionals Should Know. McLennon - Developed theory of ideology and that 3 conditions needed to be present. Identify the basic theories of media effects. Man loves woman…unfortunately one or both of them are  already spoken for, or a third party intervenes, e.g. Althusser - Suggests that 'ideological state apparatus' is enforced by media, education, religion and family who maintain hegemony and enforce dominant values across society. Genres are located in particular topic, structure and corpus. He states that it is not a replacement for the Web that we know and love, but rather a way of using existing systems in a 'new' way: to bring people together creatively. Each theorist has published ideas and arguments around key media industries and concepts relating to them. Aljean Harmetz argued that the auteur theory “collapses against the reality of the studio system”. Blumer & Katz -  Uses and Gratifications Theory the media have a limited effect on their audiences because audiences are able to exercise control over their media consumption. Perkins also argues that stereotypes are not simplistic, they contain complex understanding of roles in society. Gauntlett -  His name comes up a few times in terms of how technology influences our identity but also notably for identifying the following about the role of media studies and the impact the web is having on audiences and institutions: Fetishises 'experts‘ -   A world ruled by Media Gods, thus celebrates key texts produced by media moguls and conglomerates. Lippmann – representation theory. The analysis of the relationship between media and violence that you read about in preceding sections exemplifies this. The internet is empowering for people who like to make things, share ideas, and learn together. Levi Strauss - believed that the way we understand certain words depends not so much on any meaning they themselves directly contain, but by our understanding of the difference between the word and its 'opposite' or, as he called it 'binary opposite'. The limited application of the four established theories of the press to Third World countries has led to the birth of a new media theory whose main task is that communication be used to carry out the development functions in a society. ', Axel Bruns – Bruns defines the gatewatching practice as ‘observing the many gates through which a steady stream of information passes from these sources, and of highlighting from this stream that information which is of most relevance to one’s own personal interests or to the interests of one’s wider community.’, Nicholas Carr states in The Glass Cage, “The prevailing methods of computerized communication and coordination pretty much ensure that the role of people will go on shrinking. They often include the need for lots of close ups of the artist and the artist will have a visual style which recurs across their work. Katie Wales - 'genre is... an intertextual concept.‘  This means we make sense of a text through our experiences of other texts and repeated tropes. Most conspiracy theories, like the viruses they resemble, constantly mutate and have several variants circulating at any one time. There are frequent references to the notion of looking and the voyeuristic treatment of the female body. This theory relates especially to public polling and its use in the media (Papacharissi). Despite—or perhaps because of—these controversies, McLuhan became a pop culture icon, mentioned frequently in the television sketch-comedy program Laugh-In and appearing as himself in Woody Allen’s film Annie Hall. She believes that the female gaze is negated, or ‘drowned out’ by the dominant male gaze. Auteur theory draws on the work of cinema enthusiasts who wrote ‘Cahiers du Cinema’ and argued that a directors vision should be reflected in their films. This is when someone puts their intent out onto the internet and then gets free support/information/ideas/labour from other people on the internet. Hall, Stuart – Reception theory and Mediation is the process by which all media products are read by audiences. Framework You may assume the person is successful or powerful because of the car he or she is driving. This means that the media is determining what issues and stories the public thinks about. Jonathan Culler (2001) describes narratology as comprising many strands “implicitly united in the recognition that narrative theory requires a distinction between story, a sequence of actions or events conceived as independent of their manifestation, and discourse, the discursive presentation or narration of events.”. He says, “The relation between what we see and what we know is never settled.” Berger’s idea that looking is a political act, perhaps even a historically constructed process – such that where and when we see something will affect what we see – comes across most powerfully in the second episode of Ways of Seeing, which focused on the male gaze. Researchers found that voters who consumed the most media had generally already decided for which candidate to vote, while undecided voters generally turned to family and community members to help them decide. Truffaut expressed that directors should use the mise-en-scène to imprint their vision on their work. Researchers employed the uses and gratifications theory in this case to reveal a nuanced set of circumstances surrounding violent media consumption, as individuals with aggressive tendencies were drawn to violent media (Papacharissi, 2009). Peripheral (developing) countries are assumed to be dependant on mass media in the core (the Western world). Each of these narrative types has a source, an original story upon which the others are based. Michael Wesch – examines digital anthropology (man’s history with web technology) and concludes that new Media creates new ways of knowing each other and of knowing ourselves; We live in an MTV generation – narcissism, materialism, short attention spans – a product of web 2.0., the capacity to produce something which is both unique and useful. In this way, gender becomes a performance, with the media providing the script. Media theories. John Hartley also says that "institutions are obliged not to only speak about an audience, but - crucially, for them - to talk to one as well; they need not only to represent audiences but to enter into relation with them". 36 Theories On Social Media Strategy I’ve shared three of my own social media theories. Media also propagate other noncommercial symbols. Therefore, when the media fails to address a particular issue, it becomes marginalized in the minds of the public (Hanson). Hall - Reception theory (see Representation). Erikson was heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud; he explored three aspects of identity: the ego identity (self), personal identity (the personal idiosyncrasies that distinguish a person from another), social/cultural identity (the collection of social roles a person might play). We enjoy imagining ourselves living the characters lives.,, May be better, similar of worse than the original equilibrium. the technological simulation of consciousness, when the creative process of knowing will be collectively and corporately extended to the whole of human society.” Technology is an extension of man. This is under review and effectively a BIG issue to watch. The media has historically limited the representations of gay men and women. Here are his main points, some expanded in detail. Carol Vernallis describes how verbal, musical, and visual codes combine in music video to create defining representations of race, class, gender, sexuality, and performance. Let’s look at five fundamental theories of mass communication: 1) the magic bullet theory, 2) two-step flow theory, 3) multi-step flow theory, 4) uses and gratification theory, and 5) cultivation theory. The list should really be seen as a starting point for your own research and is not a ‘be all and end all’ approach, but hopefully you will discover new ideas and arguments that you can bring into your exam writing. Marshall - Examined the changing relationship between games and movies (2004), McShane - Highlighted 5 points/methods that journalists follow. Direct governmental control of mass media . Subcultures = Youths to express themselves and to challenge hegemony (Mostly through style). He proposed a question to our generation: why not use technology for innovation and creativity instead of consumption? Audience is not a big lump of the same people – it’s made up of different individuals. Historic power roles: directors tend to be male, thus presenting a ‘male’ representation of their subject. In his book Who Owns the Future? Barthes also decided that the threads that you pull on to try and unravel meaning are called narrative codes. Read into this list of social psychology theories put together here just for you. power and media industries, including Curran and Seaton. In both these examples, the ‘male’ is active (the one doing the looking) and the ‘female’ is passive (the one being looked at). A Theorist. Section 2 introduces the framework, and Section 3 discusses the application of these four theories to social media and compares them with empirical findings in the IS literature. Examine the topic using at least two of the approaches discussed in this section. narratology, including Todorov . The theory suggests that social and daily experiences can affect the way an audience reads a media text and reacts to it. This theory breaks down every aspect of conversation and states that if you want to create a successful conversation, than maxims, or rules must be followed. This theory was put forward by Professor Stuart Hall in ‘The Television Discourse - Encoding/Decoding’ in 1974, with later research by David Morley and Charlotte Brunsden. Kutner & Olsen Conducted research into the effects of video. Theories of Media Language: Semiotics: Barthes . He also wrote greatly about the role of audiences in a digital age, stating that the idea of a 'powerful consumer' is an oxymoron. However, journalists and researchers soon looked to behavioral sciences to help figure out the effect of mass media and communications on society. Indeed, his work has received a great deal of attention in recent years. Tapscott & Williams - Linked Web 2.0 to a new strand of economics (wikinomics, 2006) they said that ‘audiences command and control the web’. Published in 1962 and 1964, respectively, the Gutenberg Galaxy and Understanding Media both traced the history of media technology and illustrated the ways these innovations had changed both individual behavior and the wider culture. Media texts offer a way of telling stories about ourselves – not usually our own personal stories, but the story of us as a culture or set of cultures. Lanier argues that Web 2.0 developments have retarded progress and innovation and glorified the collective at the expense of the individual. Thankfully this is changing…. Media Theories and their Relevance to Communication Practice. The pervasiveness of these formats means that our culture uses the style and content of these shows as ways to interpret reality. G Burton (2000) said genres must contain “The familiar and the unexpected”; something must add to the genre pool. The cultural codes tend to point to our shared knowledge about the way the world works. These stories are as follows: Achilles: The fatal flaw that leads to the destruction of the previously flawless, or almost flawless, person, e.g. Marshall McLuhan - Electronic age (The Global Village) Many of his ideas were developed way before the internet arrived; he was a visionary. Genres must change, innovate in order to succeed. unravelled in a lot of different ways) or 'closed' (there is only one obvious thread to pull on). A belief that students should be taught how to 'read' the media in an appropriate 'critical' style, A focus on Western mainstream traditional media, Vague recognition of internet and new digital media, as an 'add on' to the traditional media. Then, researchers must consider the given media consumer’s cultural background of individuals to correctly determine other factors that are involved in his or her perception of reality. However, as news coverage wanes, so does the general public’s interest. E.g. Branston and Stafford also explain the framework of the uses and gratifications model of audience that supposes the “individual consumer of media” is the authority in the media/consumer relationship (274). His work brought the idea of media effects into the public arena and created a new way for the public to consider the influence of media on culture (Stille, 2000). This perspective on self can lead to habitual body monitoring, which, in turn, can increase women's opportunities for shame and anxiety, reduce opportunities for peak motivational states, and diminish awareness of internal bodily states. Genres sometimes appear to function ritually and others ideologically. She wrote ‘Gender Trouble’. By looking at this theory we are able to see that the media in society tends to ignore the good and the hard working and focuses on the fun and the trouble. Resolution: Whatever the problem was is sorted out and all is well again. Stille, Alexander. One maxim is quality. This creates a self-propagating loop in which minority voices are reduced to a minimum and perceived popular opinion sides wholly with the majority opinion., Using imagination rather than imitating something else. The audience takes a negotiated position, meaning that they only agree with some-not all of the preferred meaning. Peterson 3. And rather than being created completely by a human author, these versions are often in part automatically assembled by a computer” You enter information about yourself and then the automated software creates a personalized interface to the database just for you. Viewers are encouraged to identify with the protagonist of the film who, more often than not, is a man. This model assumed that audiences passively accepted media messages and would exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages. Researchers have identified a number of common motives for media consumption. TV is a passive medium.’. One reason for this is the collaborative aspect of film making. In turn, media companies have sought to produce accurate representations of their audiences in an attempt to discover the qualifications for the most consumable media products (Branston and Stafford 268-270). For example, think about a TV news program that frequently shows heated debates between opposing sides on public policy issues. Gramsci – Suggested that dominant ideologies can change over time, moving away from heritage and tradition if enough audiences/groups enforce their own discourse (We media). New Equilibrium/ Re-Equilibrium/ Second Equilibrium: (satisfactory end) Back to normal, peace restored (but never the same)- a new normality! John Berger – performance narrative. I have summarised most theorists’ key ideas or simplified their concept for your benefit. Josephy Campbell – based on years of research, he proposed the idea of ‘universal monomyth’ that is essentially the condensed, basic hero narrative that forms the basis for every myth and legend in the world and is, therefore, common to all cultures: Ordinary World – the ordered world that the hero will choose (or be forced) to abandon. McLuhan's coinage for this new social organization is the global village. The Frankfurt School theorised in the 1920s and 30s that the mass media acted to restrict and control audiences to the benefit of corporate capitalism and governments. Mass Communication: Living in a Media World (Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2009), 80–81. Some of the definitions are explained above; the list is presented below. Media effects include theories that explain how the mass media influence the attitudes and perceptions of audience members. 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