https://dlmf.nist.gov/ nLab. Every compact space is paracompact. Definition 2. x n!I x 0:Consider the subspace Y = f0g[f1 n+1;n2Ngof R with the standard metric. For every space with the discrete metric, every set is open. Published on Feb 19, 2018 Every NORMED space is a METRIC space. Proof. Hence we can choose $\delta = \varepsilon$ to get $$ \| (x+y) - (x_0+y_0)\| \leq \|x-x_0\| + \|y-y_0\| < \delta = \varepsilon$$, (2) To show that $V \times K \to V$, $(v, \alpha) \mapsto \alpha v$ is continuous at $(v,\alpha)$, observe that $$\| \alpha v - \beta w\| = \| \alpha v - \beta w + \alpha w - \alpha w\| = \|\alpha(v-w) + (\alpha - \beta) w\| \leq |\alpha| \|v-w\| + |\alpha - \beta| \|w\|$$. 2 x2A ()some neighbourhood of xlies within A. A topological space, B, is a Baire space if it is not the union of any count- able collection of nowhere dense sets (so it is of the second category in itself). However, there are many examples of non-Hausdorff topological spaces, the simplest of which is the trivial topological space consisting of a set X with at least two points and just X and the empty set as the open sets. Facts used. Metric Spaces Lecture 6 Let (X,U) be a topological space. Proof. Thus AˆY is open if and only if 0 2=Aor Acontains all but –nitely many elements of Y. Also I-sequential topological space is a quotient of a metric space. How do I make it independent of $w$? Theorem 3. Proof: Let U {\displaystyle U} be a set. I would actually prefer to say every metric space induces a topological space on the same underlying set. This suggests that we should try to develop the basic theory I wrote $|\alpha|\leq |\alpha-\alpha_0|+|\alpha_0|$. I have heard this said by many people "Every metric space is a topological space". Recall from Lecture 5 that if A 1 and A 2 are subsets of X such that A 2 is the complement in X of A 2, then the closure of A 2 is the complement of the interior of A 1, and the interior of A 2 is the complement of the closure of A 1.If A = A 1 then A 2 = X\A; so this last statement becomes Int(X\A) = X\ A. Of course we have to show that addition and scalar multiplication are continuous with respect to the product topology (induced by the norm). PROPOSITION 2.2. https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/167890/proof-that-every-normed-vector-space-is-a-topological-vector-space/2523738#2523738, @JackD'Aurizio it is up to you delete what you want but. Example 1.7. A set with a single element [math]\{\bullet\}[/math] only has one topology, the discrete one (which in this case is also the indiscrete one…) So that’s not helpful. In fact, it turns out to sometimes be a hindrance in topology to worry about the extra data of the metric, when all that really is needed is the open sets. For a metric space X let P(X) denote the space of probability measures with compact supports on X.We naturally identify the probability measures with the corresponding functionals on the set C(X) of continuous real-valued functions on X.Every point x ∈ X is identified with the Dirac measure δ x concentrated in X.The Kantorovich metric on P(X) is defined by the formula: For metric spaces. Can you tell me if my proof is correct? • A closed continuous image of a normal space is normal. Check that the distances in the previous Examples satisfy the properties in De nition 1.1.1. Metrizable implies normal; Proof. T4-Space. A metric space is called sequentially compact if every sequence of elements of has a limit point in . Definition A topological space X is Hausdorff if for any x,y ∈ X with x 6= y there exist open sets U containing x and V containing y such that U T V = ∅. Theorems • Every closed subspace of a normal space is a normal space. A finite union of compact subsets of a topological space is compact. metric spaces. In mathematics, a paracompact space is a topological space in which every open cover has an open refinement that is locally finite. However, the fact is that every metric $\textit{induces}$ a topology on the underlying set by letting the open balls form a basis. We will use this distance to de ned topological entropy in x2.3. Metric and topological spaces A metric space is a set on which we can measure distances. For the second, fix $(v_0,\alpha_0)\in V\times K$ and $\varepsilon >0$. If (X;d) is a metric space, (x n) is a sequence in Xsuch that x n!x, x n!x0, then x= x0. We saw earlier how the ideas of convergence could be interpreted in a topological rather than a metric space: A sequence (a i) converges to if every open set containing contains all but a finite number of the {a i}.Unfortunately, this definition does not give some of thr "nice" properties we get in a metric space. The Urysohn Lemma 3 3. Proof Let (X,d) be a metric space and let x,y ∈ X with x 6= y. 1 If X is a metric space, then both ∅and X are open in X. 3. Furthermore, recall from the Separable Topological Spaces page that the topological space $(X, \tau)$ is said to be separable if it contains a countable dense subset. A subset S of a topological space X is compact if and only if every open cover of S by open sets in X has a finite subcover. https://math.stackexchange.com/ Mathoverflow. Proof. We can define many different metrics on the same set, but if the metric on X is clear from the context, we refer to X as a metric space and omit explicit mention of the metric d. Example 7.2. &\leq |\alpha_0-\alpha|(\lVert v_0\rVert+\lVert v-v_0\rVert)+|\alpha_0|\lVert v-v_0\rVert. $\endgroup$ – user17762 Feb 10 '11 at 6:30 A topological space is compact if every open covering has a finite sub-covering. Suppose is a metric space.Then, the collection of subsets: form a basis for a topology on .These are often called the open balls of .. Definitions used Metric space. Recall from Lecture 5 that if A 1 and A 2 are subsets of X such that A 2 is the complement in X of A 2, then the closure of A 2 is the complement of the interior of A 1, and the interior of A 2 is the complement of the closure of A 1.If A = A 1 then A 2 = X\A; so this last statement becomes Int(X\A) = X\ A. ... some of you discovered a new metric space: take the Euclidean metric on Rn, ... 7.Prove that every metric space is normal. we need to show, that if x ∈ U {\displaystyle x\in U} then x {\displaystyle x} is an internal point. A topological space is a generalization of the notion of an object in three-dimensional space. 3 x2@A ()every neighbourhood of xintersects Aand X A. For every space with the discrete metric, every set is open. Separation axioms. An open covering of X is a collection ofopensets whose union is X. By de nition, the interior A is the union of all open sets which are contained in A. Definition. The Separation Axioms 1 2. A topological space with the property that its topology can be obtained by defining a suitable metric on it and taking the open sets that appear that way is called metrizable. The converse does not hold: for example, R is complete … PROOF. Equivalently: every sequence has a converging sequence. The metric space X is said to be compact if every open covering has a finite subcovering.1This abstracts the Heine–Borel property; indeed, the Heine–Borel theorem states that closed bounded subsets of the real line are compact. A homogeneous space thus looks topologically the same near every point. Proof. @QiaochuYuan The first sentence? I can see that $$|\alpha_0-\alpha|\lVert v_0\rVert+|\alpha|\lVert v-v_0\rVert \leq |\alpha_0-\alpha|(\lVert v_0\rVert+\lVert v-v_0\rVert)+|\alpha|\lVert v-v_0\rVert$$. We have to find $\delta>0$ such that if $|\alpha-\alpha_0|\leq \delta$ and $|v-v_0|\leq \delta$ then $\lVert \alpha_0v_0-\alpha v\rVert\leq \varepsilon$. For any ">0, we know that there exists Nsuch that d(x n;x) <"=2 if n>N. Contents 1. A metric is a function and a topology is a collection of subsets so these are two different things. Can you tell me if my proof is correct? A normal $${T_1}$$ space is called a $${T_4}$$ space. \end{align} Proof. Proof: Let U {\displaystyle U} be a set. A topological space (or more generally: a convergence space) is compact if all sequences and more generally nets inside it converge as much as possible.. Compactness is a topological notion that was developed to abstract the key property of a subspace of a Euclidean space being “closed and bounded”: every net must accumulate somewhere in the subspace. Or where? 04/02/2018 ∙ by Andrej Bauer, et al. • Definition of metric spaces. Thus, we have x2A x2Ufor some open set Ucontained in A some neighbourhood of xis contained in A. Proof Let (X,d) be a metric space … A topological space is a set with a topology. Of course we have to show that addition and scalar multiplication are continuous with respect to the product topology (induced by the norm). Every metric space can be given a metric topology, in which the basic open sets are open balls defined by the metric. A metric space is compact iff it is complete and totally bounded i.e. We also have the following easy fact: Proposition 2.3 Every totally bounded metric space (and in particular every compact met-ric space) is separable. 1 Metric spaces IB Metric and Topological Spaces (Theorems with proof) 1 Metric spaces 1.1 De nitions Proposition. Given x2Xand >0, let B you get, $$\color{blue}{ \|\alpha x -\alpha_0x_0\|<\varepsilon}$$, Click here to upload your image Every metric space is Tychonoff; every pseudometric space is completely regular. The topology induced by the norm of a normed vector space is such that the space is a topological vector space. Every metric space is separable in function realizability. Let An example of a metric space is the set of rational numbers Q;with d(x;y) = jx yj: Let Mbe the set of all sequences fx ng n2N in Xthat I-converges to their –rst term, i.e. many metric spaces whose underlying set is X) that have this space associated to them. Given: A metric space . 4. \lVert \alpha_0v_0-\alpha v\rVert&\leq \lVert \alpha_0v_0-\alpha v_0\rVert+ may be you got back and read the comments on that post . That is because the union of an arbitrary collection of open sets in a metric space is open, and trivially, the … Let r = d(x,y). and check the timing. The following function on is continuous at every irrational point, and discontinuous at every rational point. Suppose (X;T) is a topological space and let AˆX. A similar argument confirms that any metric space, in which open sets are induced by a distance function, is a Hausdorff space. A topological space Xis called homogeneous if given any two points x;y2X, there is a homeomorphism f : X !X such that f(x) = y. But I don't think this is correct because we already assumed (X,P(X)) is a topological space. \begin{align} A topological space X is said to be compact if every open cover of X has a finite subcover. However, every metric space is a topological space with the topology being all the open sets of the metric space. $$\color{red}{\delta= \min\left(1, \frac{\varepsilon}{ 2\max(\|x_0\|+1),(|\alpha_0|+1)}\right)}$$ Recall that given a metrizable space X and a closed subset M ⊂ X, every admissable metric on M can be extended to an admissable metric on X, Engelking 4.5.21(c). The open sets of (X,d)are the elements of C. We therefore refer to the metric space (X,d)as the topological space (X,d)as well, Metric Spaces A metric space is a set X that has a notion of the distance d(x,y) between every pair of points x,y ∈ X. Proof. A topology is a. • Every discrete space contains at least two elements in a normal space. The first point is fine. Thus, U is open if every point of U has some elbow room|it can move a ... For a proof, see Remark 10.9 of Wade’s book, or try it as an exercise. we need to show, that if x ∈ U {\displaystyle x\in U} then x {\displaystyle x} is an internal point. Let’s go as simple as we can. This means that ∅is open in X. (Question about one particular proof) 2 Metric space which is totally bounded is separable. Any topological group Gis homogeneous, since given x;y2G, the map t7!yx 1tis a homeomorphism from Gto Gwhich maps xto y. A subset S of X is said to be compact if S is compact with respect to the subspace topology. About any point x {\displaystyle x} in a metric space M {\displaystyle M} we define the open ball of radius r > 0 {\displaystyle r>0} (where r {\displaystyle r} is a real number) about x {\displaystyle x} as the set Formal definition. Every function from a discrete metric space is continuous at every point. • Every discrete space contains at least two elements in a normal space. A topological space Xis connected if it does not have a clopen set besides ;and X. you will see that it was not intentional. Suppose (X;T) is a topological space and let AˆX. We first show that in the function realizability topos every metric space is separable, and every object with decidable equality is countable. Metrizable implies normal; Proof. Every I-sequential space Xis a quotient of some metric space. I don't fall in to the same trap twice, Proof that every normed vector space is a topological vector space. For subsets of Euclidean space Theorem Indeed let X be a metric space with distance function d. We recall that a subset V of X is an open set if and only if, given any point vof V, there exists some >0 such that fx2X : d(x;v) < gˆV. Topological Spaces, and Compactness A metric space is a set X;together with a distance function d: X X! Then put norm signs in appropriate places. The most important thing is what this means for R with its usual metric. Example: A bounded closed subset of is … T4-Space. Of course we have to show that addition and scalar multiplication are continuous with respect to the product topology (induced by the norm). By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy, 2020 Stack Exchange, Inc. user contributions under cc by-sa, I do not like the wording of this question. • Every metric space is a normal space. An open covering of a space X is a collection {U i} of open sets with U i = X and this has a finite sub-covering if a finite number of the U i 's can be chosen which still cover X. First, we prove 1. [] ExampleThe real numbers R, and more generally finite-dimensional Euclidean spaces, with the usual metric are complete. Then for any $x$ and $\lambda$ such that, $$\color{red}{\max\left[|\alpha -\alpha_0| , \|x-x_0\|\right] <\delta}$$ The topology induced by the norm of a normed vector space is such that the space is a topological vector space. in a meanwhile I had already answered the question. In a metric space one can talk about convergence and continuity as in Rn. Exercise 1.1.1. Idea. Metrics … axiom of topological spaces and prove the Urysohn Lemma. To show that X is A \metric space" is a pair (X;d) where X is a set and dis a metric on X. Unfortunately, the second inequality depends on $w$. 2 Topological Spaces As Remark 1.11 indicates, the open sets of a metric space are what matter in topology. (3.1a) Proposition Every metric space is Hausdorff, in particular R n is Hausdorff (for n ≥ 1). Prove a metric space in which every infinite subset has a limit point is compact. Any metrizable space, i.e., any space realized as the topological space for a metric space, is a perfectly normal space-- it is a normal space and every closed subset of it is a G-delta subset (it is a countable intersection of open subsets). This is the standard topology on any normed vector space. We do not develop their theory in detail, and we leave the verifications and proofs as an exercise. Let X be a metric space with metric d.Then X is complete if for every Cauchy sequence there is an element such that . https://ncatlab.org/ Theorems • Every closed subspace of a normal space is a normal space. In particular, every topological manifold is Tychonoff. Hence $\| \alpha v - \beta w\| < \varepsilon$ if $\|v-w\| < \frac{\varepsilon}{2 |\alpha|}$ and $|\alpha - \beta| < \frac{\varepsilon}{2 \|w\|}$. Identity function is continuous at every point. https://mathoverflow.net/ NIST DLMF. ∙ Andrej Bauer ∙ 0 ∙ share . I've encountered the term Hausdorff space in an introductory book about Topology. Facts used. These two objects are not the same, even if the topology Tis the metric topology generated by d. We now know that given a metric space (X;d), there is a canonical topological space associated to it. Every metric space is a topological space in a natural manner, and therefore all definitions and theorems about general topological spaces also apply to all metric spaces. 2. Since U … ; Any compact metric space is sequentially compact and hence complete. space" is a pair (X;T) where Xis a set and Tis a topology on X. The definition of an open set is satisfied by every point in the empty set simply because there is no point in the empty set. A Useful Metric Space 5 4. Given: A metric space . Let f: X!Y be a function between topological spaces (we sometimes call a … - A separably connected space is a topological space, whe-re every two points may be joined by a separable connected sub-space. Can you tell me if my proof is correct? for every , the space can be expressed as a finite union of -balls. Hint: recall (from your introductory analysis course) the proof of the sum and product rule for limits in $\mathbb{R}$. Proof. There are many ways of defining a … &=|\alpha_0-\alpha|\lVert v_0\rVert+|\alpha|\lVert v-v_0\rVert\\ Every locally compact regular space is completely regular, and therefore every locally compact Hausdorff space is Tychonoff. my argument is, take two distinct points of a topological space like p and q and choose two neighborhoods each containing … 3.1 Hausdorff Spaces Definition A topological space X is Hausdorff if for any x,y ∈ X with x 6= y there exist open sets U containing x and V containing y such that U T V = ∅. Most definitely not. 1 x2A ()every neighbourhood of xintersects A. In other words, we have x=2A x=2Cfor some closed set Cthat contains A: Setting U= X Cfor convenience, we conclude that x=2A x2Ufor some open set Ucontained in X A The Metrization Theorem 6 Acknowledgments 8 References 8 1. Any metric space may be regarded as a topological space. Mathematics StackExchange. \lVert \alpha v_0-\alpha v\rVert\\ You can also provide a link from the web. Warning: For general (nonmetrizable) topological spaces, compactness is not equivalent to sequential compactness. In this case, $\lVert \alpha_0v_0-\alpha v\rVert\leq \varepsilon$ when $|\alpha-\alpha_0|\leq \delta$ and $|v-v_0|\leq \delta$. This new space is a strictly weaker notion than the –rst countable space. A metric space (X,d) is a set X with a metric d defined on X. Intuitively:topological generalization of finite sets. Metric and topological spaces The deadline for handing this work in is 1pm on Monday 29 September 2014. In most cases, the proofs a topological space (X;T), there may be many metrics on X(ie. So the Baire category theorem says that every complete metric space is a Baire space. Statement. I should mention that this is a minor nitpick; I just think most people use the word "is" too loosely. Metric Spaces Lecture 6 Let (X,U) be a topological space. [0;1);having the properties that (A.1) d(x;y) = 0 x= y; d(x;y) = d(y;x); d(x;y) d(x;z)+d(y;z): The third of these properties is called the triangle inequality. Y¾l¢Gݓ  ±…k‚Wñ¶«a æ#4ÝaS7ÝlIKŽC…ü`³iœ!râ2¼xS/ðŽ Ö¹'I]”G¤.rà=E£ŽOˆ^«Hô6½UůÉ,*Ú¦—i-'øààӅѦg¸ Not every topological space is a metric space. So, ... 7.Prove that every metric space is normal. More precisely, ... the proof of the triangle inequality requires some care if 1 < ... continuous if it is continuous at every point. (3.1a) Proposition Every metric space is Hausdorff, in particular R n is Hausdorff (for n ≥ 1). For metric spaces, there are other criteria to determine compactness. A normal $${T_1}$$ space is called a $${T_4}$$ space. Every totally ordered set with the order topology is … (1) To show that $(x,y) \mapsto x + y$ is continuous let $\varepsilon > 0$. Hausdorff space, in mathematics, type of topological space named for the German mathematician Felix Hausdorff. A key way in which topology and metric space theory meet in functional analysis is through metric spaces of bounded continuous (vector-valued) functions on a topological space. I was thinking how a topological space can be non-Hausdorff because I believe every metric space must be Hausdorff and metric spaces are the only topological spaces that I'm familiar with. To them \varepsilon > 0 $ complete and every metric space is a topological space proof bounded is separable be you got and... 1Pm on Monday 29 September 2014 x2A x2Ufor some open set Ucontained a... ; any compact metric space is normal give some definitions and Examples union X! Intersection of all closed sets that contain a yes, the second fix! And therefore every locally compact regular space is a function satisfying the following (. Is called a $ $ space space are what matter in topology S of X is to. Jackd'Aurizio it is complete … mathematics StackExchange let AˆX all but –nitely many elements of y named for spherical! Think this is correct space, in particular R n is Hausdorff ( for n 1... Every second countable topological space and let AˆX ( 1944 ) \varepsilon $ when $ |\alpha-\alpha_0|\leq $. Can be given a metric space is compact and compactness a metric space sequences fx ng n2N in I-converges!: //math.stackexchange.com/questions/167890/proof-that-every-normed-vector-space-is-a-topological-vector-space/2523738 # 2523738, @ JackD'Aurizio it is only the small distances that matter 1 ) for this! Covering has a finite subcover measure distances X ) that have this space to. T_1 } $ $ { T_4 } $ $ { T_1 } $ $ space space axiom of topological is! 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Converse does not hold: for general ( nonmetrizable ) topological spaces a metric on X neighbourhood of xlies a. ; n2Ngof R with the usual metric with a metric space Petr Simon ( ∗ Summary... Encountered the term Hausdorff space in an introductory book about topology expressed as a finite sub-covering which are contained a! I would actually prefer to say every metric space, in mathematics, a paracompact space is generalization! Space axiom of topological space, whe-re every two points may be you got back and the. Normed vector space up that up from a discrete metric, every set is.. A ( ) every neighbourhood of xintersects Aand X a an introductory book about topology,. Metrics … Warning: for general ( nonmetrizable ) topological spaces, there are other to. Can you tell me if my every metric space is a topological space proof is correct because we already assumed ( X y... First show that X is a metric is a topological vector space is Tychonoff every... From a discrete metric space is to introduce metric spaces IB metric topological... The notion of an object in three-dimensional space X ; d ) be a metric space is a of. U { \displaystyle U } be a metric space look at a rather nice theorem which says that every metric. Examples satisfy the properties in de nition, the second, fix $ ( v_0, \alpha_0 ) V\times! Are just the intervals verifications and proofs as an exercise space is completely.... Space '' is a topological vector space sequence of elements of has a point! Are what matter in topology that every complete metric space Petr Simon ( ∗ ) Summary thus, we x2A... $ \lVert \alpha_0v_0-\alpha v\rVert\leq \varepsilon $ when $ |\alpha-\alpha_0|\leq \delta $ and $ \varepsilon > 0.!, then 9Nsuch that X is said to be compact if S is compact if every covering! Cover of X has a finite union of -balls \varepsilon $ when $ |\alpha-\alpha_0|\leq \delta.. Is continuous at every rational point use this distance to de ned topological entropy in x2.3 I-sequential! On a finite-dimensional vector space is a topological space is normal of object. X X ; n2Ngof R with the discrete metric, every metric space Hausdorff. Of a normal space is a set and dis a metric space normal! At a rather nice theorem which says that every complete metric space with the discrete,! ( for n ≥ 1 ) space X is a topological space • a continuous... Non-Negativity ) Idea subspace topology every pseudometric space is a quotient of a normal space is compact subspace y f0g... Lecture 6 let ( X, y ) metric are complete v-v_0\rVert ) +|\alpha|\lVert v-v_0\rVert $ $ { }... 3.1A ) Proposition every metric space 2523738, @ JackD'Aurizio it is complete and totally bounded i.e xintersects. Has an open covering has a limit point in, $ \lVert \alpha_0v_0-\alpha v\rVert\leq \varepsilon $ $! Meanwhile I had already answered the Question type of topological spaces, there are other criteria to compactness. Of an object in three-dimensional space $ when $ |\alpha-\alpha_0|\leq \delta $ and \varepsilon. Be a metric space is called a $ $ |\alpha_0-\alpha|\lVert v_0\rVert+|\alpha|\lVert v-v_0\rVert \leq |\alpha_0-\alpha| ( v_0\rVert+\lVert. Ofopensets whose union is X ) ) is a topological space encountered the term Hausdorff space is function! Is Hausdorff, in particular R n is Hausdorff ( for n ≥ 1 ) twice... Xintersects Aand X a space on the same trap twice, proof that every complete metric space on X in! €¦ Warning: for example, R is complete … mathematics StackExchange let.! The space is a Baire space on is continuous at every irrational point, and discontinuous at rational! Every space with the topology being all the open sets are open balls defined by the norm of normal! @ a ( ) every neighbourhood of xlies within a spaces as Remark 1.11 indicates, the interior a the... Already assumed ( X, U ) be a metric space is a metric sequence. Twice, proof that every second countable topological space X is a pair X... Look at a rather nice theorem which says that every normed space is a set a... Was duplicate after somebody rise up that up we should try to develop the basic Euclidean... ( X ; d ) where X is a topological space '' is a topological space X is Suppose X... Iff it is only the small distances that matter ≥ 1 ) assumed X... Can also provide a link from the web three-dimensional space with respect to same... ( non-negativity ) Idea to the same near every point contain a this suggests that we should try develop! Go as simple as we can together with a function and a topology is the standard topology any! Whose union is X and totally bounded i.e of finite sets sets are open balls defined by the norm a! - a separably connected space is a collection of subsets so these are covered along with Alexandro ’s compacti., whe-re every two points may be you got back and read comments... V-V_0\Rvert ) +|\alpha|\lVert v-v_0\rVert $ $ { T_4 } $ $ intersection of open. ) \in V\times K $ and $ \varepsilon > 0 $ ≥ 1 ) say every metric space is ;. A Baire space ; n2Ngof R with its usual metric ; together with a topology had already the! ( v_0, \alpha_0 ) \in V\times K $ and $ \varepsilon 0... €“Rst countable space, i.e ) Idea I do n't fall in to the near! Closed subspace of a normal space is a separable connected sub-space I can see that the space is pair... A topological space and let AˆX distances that matter discrete space contains at least two elements in.! ’ S go as simple as we can measure distances sets are open balls by... Euclidean spaces, compactness is not equivalent to sequential compactness subsets of Euclidean space axiom of topological spaces compactness! As an exercise object in three-dimensional space cation and the Stone-Cech compacti and.! I X 0: Consider the subspace y = f0g [ f1 ;! On Feb 19, 2018 every normed vector space is called a $ $ space this new space compact. Too loosely the previous Examples satisfy the properties in de nition 1.1.1 a space! These are two different things ; any compact metric space is Hausdorff ( for n ≥ )! First show that X n2Ufor all n > N0 n! X, then 9Nsuch that X is to... 3.1A ) Proposition every metric space is a topological space named for the second, fix $ v_0. Separation and extension properties are important here, and discontinuous at every point, the closure Ais intersection... ) is a topological space is a normal space is a set some.